Test Review and Continuing Medical Education (CME)

Show only CME | Test Review
1 Hepatitis C virus (HCV) , Test Review
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes both acute and chronic infection. Acute HCV infection is usually asymptomatic, and is only very rarely associated with life-threatening disease. About 15–45% of infected persons spontaneously clear the virus without any treatment. The remaining 55–85% of persons will develop chronic HCV infection. Of those with chronic HCV infection, the risk of cirhosis of the liver is 15–30% within 20 years.
Download
2 Human Papilloma Virus & Cervical Cancer, Test Review
Download
3 Hemoglobin A1c, Test Review
HbA1c has now been recommended by an International Committee and by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) as a means to diagnose diabetes and as a screening test for persons at high risk of diabetes. The HbA1c test can be used to diagnose type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes alone or in combination with other diabetes tests. In the past, the HbA1c test was not recommended for diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes because of the many different types of HbA1c tests that could give varied results. Nowadays, the HbA1c laboratory tests have become standardized and the accuracy has been improved by the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP).
Download
4 Right Antibiotic,
Download
5 Vitamin D, Sun and Skin, Test Review
Vitamin D deficiency is a major health concern globally including tropical countries, notwithstanding the brightly shining sun. The “adequacy of exposure to sunlight of an individual’s bare skin” required to photosynthesize vitamin D is grossly ill understood. Darker skin has high melanin content which acts as a natural sunscreen. Therefore, darker skin produces a significantly lesser amount of vitamin D when compared with the individuals with fairer skin, such as Caucasians. Thus, for darker skin tone, minimum “direct sun exposure” required daily is estimated to be more than 45 min to bare face, arms and legs to sun’s UV rays (wavelength 290–310 nm).
Download
6 Ionized Calcium, Test Review
About 40% to 45% of the Calcium in the blood is bound to albumin. Ionized (free) calcium, accounts for 50% to 55% of total calcium. Ionized calcium is the physiologically active form of calcium. So total calcium level does not give an indication of what is available at the cellular level. Ionized calcium is biologically active, tightly regulated by calcium binding hormones and a better indicator of the calcium metabolic disturbances than the total calcium.
Download
7 Microalbumin, Test Review
Proteinuria is a sign of abnormal excretion of protein by the kidney but is a nonspecific term including any or all proteins excreted. In contrast, albuminuria specifically refers to an abnormal excretion rate of albumin. Microalbuminuria refers to an abnormally increased excretion rate of albumin in the urine (3). Microalbuminuria has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of Cardiovascular and progressive kidney disease (3–6) not only in diabetes but also in non-diabetic subjects (8)
Download
8 Cystatin C , Test Review
Kidney function estimates are central to the diagnosis and management of chronic kidney disease, and these estimates are usually based on the creatinine blood test. However, the creatinine test can miss early losses of kidney function, particularly in patients with low muscle mass. A new, international study from the Chronic Kidney Disease Prognosis Consortium found that use of blood levels of cystatin C to estimate kidney function – alone or in combination with creatinine – strengthens the association between kidney function and risks of death and end-stage renal disease. cystatin C defines an important preclinical period of reduced kidney function before chronic kidney disease can be diagnosed with creatinine alone, and this period may last one to two decades cystatin C is not affected by muscle mass, so it requires less adjustment for factors like age and gender. In addition, cystatin C works similarly as a marker of kidney function in blacks and whites.
Download
9 New Lipid Biomarkers:Apoliporoteins A and B, Test Review
The Apolipoprotein B (Apo B) test is used, along with other lipid tests, to help determine an individual's risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). An increased ratio of Apo B to Apo A-I may indicate a higher risk of developing CVD. Apo B has been found to be a better predictor of cardiac risk than the previous described lipid biomarkers. Apo B and Apo B/Apo A-I ratio has the strongest association with coronary heart disease. Apo B levels additionally may be ordered to monitor the effectiveness of lipid lowering treatment as an alternative to non-HDL-C (non-HDL-C is the total cholesterol concentration minus the amount of HDL).
Download
10 Test Review on Cardiovascular Disease Risk (New), Test review
An Apolipoprotein is a protein that binds to a fat (lipid). When an Apolipoprotein bonds to a lipid, it forms a Lipoprotein. apo A-I and B are structural and functional components of lipoprotein particles that serve as transporters of cholesterol. apo B transfers cholesterol and triglyceride from sites of production to tissues where they are utilized for energy production, storage, membrane assembly, or hormone synthesis. On the other hand, Apo A-I plays an important role in the reverse cholesterol transport by transferring cholesterol from tissues back to the liver.
Download
11 Test Review on Cardiovascular Disease Risk, Test Review
An Apolipoprotein is a protein that binds to a fat (lipid). When an Apolipoprotein bonds to a lipid, it forms a Lipoprotein. apo A-I and B are structural and functional components of lipoprotein particles that serve as transporters of cholesterol. apo B transfers cholesterol and triglyceride from sites of production to tissues where they are utilized for energy production, storage, membrane assembly, or hormone synthesis. On the other hand, Apo A-I plays an important role in the reverse cholesterol transport by transferring cholesterol from tissues back to the liver.
Download
12 Cardiovascular Disease Risk, Test Review
An Apolipoprotein is a protein that binds to a fat (lipid). When an Apolipoprotein bonds to a lipid, it forms a Lipoprotein.
Download
13 Cardiovascular Disease Risk, Test Review
An Apolipoprotein is a protein that binds to a fat (lipid). When an Apolipoprotein bonds to a lipid, it forms a Lipoprotein.
Download
14 Cardiovascular Disease Risk, Test Review
An Apolipoprotein is a protein that binds to a fat (lipid). When an Apolipoprotein bonds to a lipid, it forms a Lipoprotein.
Download
15 Cardiovascular Disease Risk, Test Review
An Apolipoprotein is a protein that binds to a fat (lipid). When an Apolipoprotein bonds to a lipid, it forms a Lipoprotein.
Download
16 Cardiovascular Disease Risk, Test Review
An Apolipoprotein is a protein that binds to a fat (lipid). When an Apolipoprotein bonds to a lipid, it forms a Lipoprotein.
Download
17 Cardiovascular Disease Risk, Test Review
An Apolipoprotein is a protein that binds to a fat (lipid). When an Apolipoprotein bonds to a lipid, it forms a Lipoprotein.
Download
18 Protein Creatinine Ratio Measurements, Test Review
Protein Creatinine Ratio Measurements On Random Urine Samples for Prediction of Significant Proteinuria Proteinuria is recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and renal disease and as a predictor of end organ damage (1). It is acknowledged that estimation of urinary protein excretion over a 24-h period is the reference, or gold standard, method. This approach, however, is considered by many to be impractical in some circumstances, particularly in the outpatient setting, because of the difficulties associated with obtaining a complete collection. In a study of elderly patients, Mitchell et al. had to discard >20% of the samples returned because they were considered to be incomplete; Chitalia et al. in their study had to discard 10% of the samples received for similar reasons (2,3).
Download
19 Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR), Test Review
Chronic kidney disease, which poses a public health threat of epidemic proportions, is largely under diagnosed and often inadequately treated. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is accepted as the best overall measure of kidney function and also used to facilitate the detection, evaluation, and management of chronic kidney disease (1) An estimating equation (MDRD estimated GFR) is derived with the use of regression techniques to model the observed relation between the serum level of the marker and the measured GFR in a population called estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).
Download
20 The Ultra sensitive Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (hTSH II) Assay, Test Review
The thyroid gland controls the metabolic rate of many organs and tissues. Under activity and over activity of thyroid function represent the commonest endocrine problems, have widespread manifestations, and often require long term treatment. Measurement of serum TSH is the best test of thyroid function, because of the sensitivity of TSH secretion to very small changes in serum T4 and T3 concentrations.
Download
21 Automated TB Detection-MGIT 960 System, Test Review
In the management of tuberculosis epidemics rapid detection of infective patients and early detection of drug resistance is crucial. Multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has also recently become a serious public health problem. Resistance to any of the primary drugs, including pyrazinamide, makes the disease more difficult and expensive to treat. There has also been an increase in the number of infections caused by mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MOTT), which pose a particular threat to the growing populations of immune compromised patients. Consequently, the major targets for improvement of the laboratory diagnosis of mycobacterial infections centers are speeding up detection and identification of mycobacteria and rapid detection of resistant isolates and also increasing the sensitivity of detection of MOTT.
Download
22 H. pylori stool antigen-test, Test Review
Helicobacter pylori is the principal cause of peptic ulcer disease and is associated with lymphoproliferative disorders and development of gastric carcinoma. Several methods, both invasive and non-invasive, are available for detection of H. pylori infection. Invasive methods involve endoscopy and examination of gastric biopsies, such as culture, rapid urease test and histology. Non-invasive methods include the urea breath test, serology and stool antigen test. At the present time, the identification of H. pylori is mostly made with invasive histochemical techniques and serology, with the determination of its urease activity on a isotopic substrate (breath test and mass analysis), with time-consuming bacteriological culture systems and with expensive molecular biology techniques (PCR) (1).
Download
23 Abbott Real Time HIV Qualitative PCR, Test Review
The Abbott Real Time HIV Qualitative is an in vitro amplification assay for the qualitative detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) nucleic acids from human plasma and dried blood spots (DBS). The Abbott Real Time HIV Qualitative is intended to be used as an aid in the diagnosis of HIV infection in pediatric and adult subjects. HIV infection usually presents signs and symptoms such as acute febrile illness that starts within days to weeks after initial exposure and typically last for less than 14 days. Acute HIV infection is associated with high levels of viremia prior to a detectable immune response. Therefore, HIV nucleic acid testing can be more sensitive than standard serologic testing in detection of acute infection. For pediatric HIV infection, maternal antibody can be transferred passively to infants and may be detectable for up to 18 months; therefore, early diagnosis of HIV in infants requires direct detection of the virus or its components. As a result, HIV nucleic acid testing has been recommended for detecting infection in pediatric patients 18 months of age or younger. The Abbott Real Time HIV Qualitative assay detects HIV nucleic acids by using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology with homogeneous real-time fluorescent detection. Partially doublestranded fluorescent probe design allows detection of diverse HIV groups and subtypes. The assay uses either human plasma or DBS specimen type and reports a qualitative result.
Download
24 Direct LDL Assay, Test Review
LDL carries cholesterol through the bloodstream to help the body build cell walls and produce steroid hormones. However, too much LDL sticks to blood vessel walls and blocks the flow of blood. The cholesterol carried by Low Density Lipoprotein is described as “bad cholesterol” since LDL transports cholesterol to the tissue and linked to the development of atherosclerotic lesions, Lowering LDL levels is the principal target of cardiovascular disease (CVD) therapy. Accurate LDL measurement is vital to establish CVD risk and to determine whether patients are achieving their LDL targets through therapy. LDL cholesterol can be measured directly or calculated from Total cholesterol, Triglyceride, and HDL-C using the Friedewald formula. Calculated LDL was originally introduced to measure LDL because no direct LDL assay was available. Direct measurement of LDL is determined without a calculation and has unique advantages when compared to calculated LDL, they are;
Download
25 HEp-2000 Colorzyme ANA-Ro Test , Test Review
The propensity for the immune system to work against its own body is referred to as autoimmunity. Autoimmune diseases are conditions in which there is a disorder of the immune system characterized by the abnormal production of antibodies (auto-antibodies) directed against the tissues of the body. Autoimmune diseases typically feature inflammation of various tissues of the body. Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) are unusual antibodies, detectable in the blood, that have the capability of binding to certain structures within the nucleus of the cells. ANAs are found in patients with a number of different autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, polymyositis, scleroderma, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, juvenile diabetes mellitus, Addison disease, vitiligo, pernicious anemia, glomerulonephritis, and pulmonary fibrosis. ANAs can also be found in patients with conditions that are not considered classic autoimmune diseases, such as chronic infections and cancer. Thus, ANAs indicate the possible presence of autoimmunity and provide, therefore, an indication for doctors to consider the possibility of autoimmune illness (1).
Download
26 Tumor Markers, Test Review
Most tumor markers are made by normal cells as well as by cancer cells and can be found in the blood, urine, stool, tumor tissue, or other tissues or bodily fluids of some patients with cancer. On the basis of chemical nature tumor markers can be divided in to protein, antigen, enzyme, hormone, carbohydrate.
Download
27 Tumor Markers, Test Review
Download
28 Advancing Cancer Diagnostics, Test Review
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) combines anatomical, immunological and biochemical techniques to identify discrete tissue components by the interaction of target antigens with specific antibodies tagged with a visible label. IHC makes it possible to visualize the distribution and localization of specific cellular components within cells and in the proper tissue context.
Download
29 Therapeutic Drug Monitoring/TDM/, Test Review
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is commonly used to help physicians monitor and maintain drug levels within the therapeutic window. The therapeutic window is the concentration range in which a drug exerts its clinical effect with minimal adverse effects for most patients.
Download

Location

Head Office: Kera, around Bulgaria Mazoria.
Please, view the Google Map below.

Our Laboratory Services

ICL serves its clients with its high tech equipments and extreme professionals.

Together with our Exclusive partners, we provide more than 2000 Tests.

Laboratory Testing
Referral Laboratory Testing
Stat Testing
Specimen Collection
Online Result Access
Life-Threatening (Panic) Values